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Top 10 classic herbicides used in USA and all over the world.


Top 10 classic herbicides used in USA and all over the world

1- Glyphosate

Glyphosate revolutionized weed control when this nonselective herbicide was teamed up with the Roundup Ready trait.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic  herbicide  used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses known to compete with crops grown widely across the Midwest of the United States. Initially patented and sold by Monsanto Company in the 1970s under the tradename Roundup, its U.S. patent expired in 2000. Glyphosate is the most used herbicide in the USA.
Exact figures are hard to come by because the U.S. Department of Agriculture stopped updating its pesticide use database in 2008.The EPA estimates that in the US during 2007, the agricultural market used 180 to 185 million pounds (82,000 to 84,000 tonnes) of glyphosate, the home and garden market used 5 to 8 million pounds (2,300 to 3,600 tonnes), and industry, commerce and government used 13 to 15 million pounds (5,900 to 6,800 tonnes), according to its Pesticide Industry Sales & Usage Report for 2006-2007 published in February, 2011. While glyphosate has been associated with deformities in a host of laboratory animals, its impact on humans remains unclear.
Glyphosate's mode of action is to inhibit an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids: tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. It is absorbed through foliage and translocated to growing points. Because of this mode of action, it is only effective on actively growing plants; it is not effective as a pre-emergence herbicide.
Some crops have been genetically engineered to be resistant to it (i.e. Roundup Ready, also created by Monsanto Company). Such crops allow farmers to use glyphosate as a post-emergence herbicide against both broadleaf and cereal weeds, but the development of similar resistance in some weed species is emerging as a costly problem. Soy was the first Roundup Ready crop.

2- Atrazine

Atrazine is a part of most weed control programs in corn today in USA. It is inexpensive, used in new (and older) herbicide tankmix combinations, and supports conservation tillage.
Atrazine, 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine, an organic compound consisting  of an s-triazine-ring is a widely used herbicide. Its use is controversial due to widespread contamination in drinking water and its associations with birth defects and menstrual problems when consumed by humans at concentrations below government standards. Although it has been banned in the European Union, it is still one of the most widely used herbicides in the world.

3-   2,4-D

2,4-D is more than 60 years old and still controls most major weed problems in corn. It also is versatile for use in soybeans as an early preplant application.
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a common systemic pesticide/herbicide  used in the control of broadleaf weeds. It is the most widely used herbicide in the world, and the third most commonly used in North America. 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin (plant hormone), and as such it is often used in laboratories for plant research and as a supplement in plant cell culture media such as MS medium. It was a major ingredient in Agent Orange.
2,4-D was developed during World War II by a British team at Rothamsted Experimental Station, under the leadership of Judah Hirsch Quastel, aiming to increase crop yields for a nation at war. When it was commercially released in 1946, it became the first successful selective herbicide and allowed for greatly enhanced weed control in wheat,  maize (corn), rice, and similar cereal grass crops, because it only kills dicots  (broadleaf plants) , leaving behind monocots (grasses).

4- Dicamba

Dicamba was introduced in the late 1960s and remains a versatile corn herbicide.
Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) is an herbicide. Brand names for formulations of this herbicide include Banvel, Oracle and Vanquish. This chemical compound is an organochloride and a derivative of benzoic acid.
Dicamba controls annual and perennial rose weeds in grain crops and highlands, and it is used to control brush and bracken in pastures, as well as legumes and cacti. It kills broadleaf weeds before and after they sprout. In combination with a phenoxy herbicide or with other herbicides, dicamba is used in pastures, range land, and noncrop areas (fence rows, roadways, and wastage) to control weeds. Dicamba is toxic to conifer species but is in general less toxic to grasses.
Dicamba functions by increasing plant growth rate. At sufficient concentrations, the plant outgrows its nutrient supplies and dies.

5- Prowl

Prowl (pendimethalin) continues to be a good product for control of annual grasses and small-seeded annual broadleaf weeds in corn and soybeans.
Prowl is an excellent herbicide in rice, but it can cause some root pruning. 

6- Liberty

Liberty is an alternative for glyphosate in Liberty Link crops and to date has limited weed-resistance issues. Recently, it has been called Ignite. Liberty® Herbicide from Bayer Crop Science. Active Ingredient:Glufosinate-ammonium.Available from Bayer Crop Science, LIBERTY® Herbicide gives you more application options, a longer application window, oustanding weed control and built-in crop safety.
With LIBERTY herbicide, weeds go down and yields go up. Consistently clean fields: LIBERTY controls more than 120 grass and broadleaf weeds.
Faster weed kill: Allows corn to grow through post-application.
Freedom from crop injury: Built-in ability to shrug off LIBERTY.

7- Pursuit

Pursuit is one of the first herbicides growers relied on for total post weed control programs. It garnered significant market share in soybeans.
Weeds have been reducing growers' yields for long enough - that's why there's Pursuit® Plus herbicide for soybeans. Pursuit Plus takes control of more than 45 yield-robbing broadleaf weeds and grasses, including nightshade, foxtail and velvetleaf.

8- Basagran

Basagran was one of the first post-planting selective herbicides for soybeans. It provided control of many difficult annual broadleaf weeds.
Basagran Herbicide is a selective post-emergence herbicide for the control of Broadleaf Weeds, Annual Sedges, and Yellow Nutsedge in established turf.

9- Dual

Dual and Lasso were mainstays in the mid to late 1970s. They allowed farmers to apply residual herbicides without significant tillage, which gave rise to the conservation tillage movement. These and other similar products still provide excellent control of annual grasses and small-seeded broadleaf weeds in corn and soybeans.
Metolachlor (Dual*) is in the acetamide, chloracetamide, or acetanilide chemical family of herbicides. Dual is very closely related chemically to Antor* (diethatyl) that was previously registered for use in spinach. Other related herbicides in the family of acetamides include Lasso* (alachlor), Frontier* (dimethenamid), Ramrod* (propachlor), and Harness* or Surpass* (acetachlor). Dual and its related herbicides have been used extensively in the midwestern states for corn and soybean weed control and have been very limited in uses for vegetable crops in the west. (*Product names mentioned are registered trademarks.).

10- Treflan

Treflan was one of the first DNA herbicides commercially available. It was a dominant soybean product for many years and gave rise to the commercial development of several other DNA herbicides, including Tolban, Cobex, Sonalan, Prowl, Basalin, and Endurance.
Treflan is usually applied as a liquid spray. For large farms, the herbicide is usually sprayed on with a tractor, or even by plane.
For a smaller garden, the herbicide can be sprayed with a garden pressure sprayer. The herbicide is placed over the ground after seeds have been planted, but before they have broken through to the surface of the soil. This allows the herbicide to penetrate inside the soil and prevent weeds from emerging.
References:
5-From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyphosate {and more herbicides}.
6-Top 10 classic herbicides- http://farmindustrynews.com/author/mark-moore

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