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The world organizations for Plant protection

The world organizations for Plant protection

Crop protection is the branch of horticulture concerned with protecting crops  from  pests,  weeds, disease and theft.
It encompasses:
-Pesticide-based approaches such as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides
-Biological pest control approaches such as cover crops, trap crops and beetle banks
-Barrier-based approaches such as agrotextiles and bird netting
-Animal psychology-based approaches such as bird scarers
-Biotechnology-based approaches such as plant breeding and genetic modification.
Because of the very important and worldwide characters of Crop or Plant protection, there are many worldwide and regienal organizations for Plant Protection were developed on the world, in many regiens and in every nations.
(Source: Crop protection From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

           The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

 The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is an international treaty organization that aims to secure coordinated, effective action to prevent and to control the introduction and spread of pests of plants and plant products.
The Convention extends beyond the protection of cultivated plants to the protection of natural flora and plant products. It takes into consideration both direct and indirect damage by pests, so it includes weeds.
While the IPPC’s primary focus is on plants and plant products moving in international trade, the convention also covers research materials, biological control organisms, germplasm banks, containment facilities and anything else that can act as a vector for the spread of plant pests — for example, containers, packaging materials, soil, vehicles, vessels and machinery.
The IPPC places emphasis in three main areas of work: international standard setting, information exchange and capacity development for the implementation of the IPPC and associated international phytosanitary standards.
The IPPC was created in 1952 by member countries of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. As of June 2010, 177 governments have become contracting parties to the IPPC.
(Source: Internal Plant Protection Convention-IPPC. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). 

The International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS)

The International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS) is an international scientific organization devoted to the global implementation of sustainable plant health management strategies.
IAPPS was formally inaugurated during the XIV International Plant Protection Congress (IPPC) in Jerusalem, Israel on 28 July 1999. Recognizing the needs and opportunities in global plant protection, the Standing Committee (SC) of the IPPCs established the Future Directions Committee (FDC) in 1995 and charged it to examine and elaborate upon the goals and objectives of the IPPC and to recommend organizational/structural changes necessary to meet the communication and integration needs and challenges of the plant protection sciences for the 21st century and beyond. One recommendation made by the FDC (and subsequently approved by the SC was the establishment of the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences (IAPPS).
The purpose of IAPPS is not only to provide an umbrella organization for the IPPCs but also to provide a forum and structure for the coordination and integration of the plant protection sciences on a global basis.
With members from more than 60 nations, the organization seeks to stimulate the development and exchange of plant protection information among researchers (entomologists, plant pathologists, nematologists, weed scientists, plant breeders, social scientists, economists, and crop production and marketing specialists), extension specialists, growers, policy makers, administrators, crop protection consultants, and environmental and other interested groups.
IAPPS provides a global forum for the purpose of identifying, evaluating, integrating, and promoting plant protection concepts, technologies, and policies which are economically, environmentally, and socially acceptable.
IAPPS promotes the development and transfer of Integrated Pest Management tactics through the International Plant Protection Congresses, held at four year intervals, and through a scientific journal and newsletters.
Membership Benefits: IAPPS Membership  is open to anyone. All members receive online access to the Crop Protection journal, IAPPS Newsletter and the Secretary General’s Newsletter and discounted registration fees at International Plant Protection Congresses.
IAPPS Vision: A global forum of scientists providing information and policy advice on sustainable plant health management practices. IAPPS Goal: To insure production of sufficient quality of food/feed/fiber for a growing world population. IAPPS Mission: To advocate implementation of sustainable plant health management strategies.
The Regional Plant Protection Organizations
Under the International Plant Protection Convention-IPPC (article IX of the text revised in 1997) the Regional Plant Protection Organizations (RPPO) function as coordinating bodies in the different continents to further the objectives of the Convention, and to gather and disseminate information. Each RPPO has its own independent statutes and conducts its own regional cooperation programme. RPPOs produce regional standards for their members.
They cooperate with each other and with FAO. In particular, they meet in Technical Consultations to promote the development and use of relevant standards and to encourage inter-regional cooperation on phytosanitary measures for controlling quarantine pests and preventing their introduction and spread.
A Regional Plant Protection Organization (RPPO) is an inter-governmental organization functioning as a coordinating body for National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPO) on a regional level. Not all contracting parties to the IPPC are members of RPPOs, nor are all members of RPPOs contracting parties to the IPPC. Moreover, certain contracting parties to the IPPC belong to more than one RPPO.
There are currently 10 RPPOs:

Far East, Indian subcontinent, Australia and New Zealand.
Andean community.
Southern cone of South America.
North America
Europe and Mediterranean.
Central America.
Near East.
the Near East Plant Protection Organization (NEPPO).
The functions of RPPOs are mostly laid down in the Article IX of the IPPC and include:
-Coordination and participation in activities among their NPPOs in order to promote and achieve the objectives of the IPPC.
-Cooperation  among regions for promoting harmonized phytosanitary measures.
-Gathering and dissemination of information, in particular in relation with the IPPC .
-Cooperation with the CPM and the IPPC Secretariat in developing and implementing international standards for phytosanitary measures.
Each RPPO has its own activities and programme. Each year, a Technical Consultation of representatives of RPPOs and the IPPC Secretariat is convened to encourage inter-regional consultation on harmonized phytosanitary measures for controlling pests and in preventing their spread and/or introduction, and to promote the development and use of relevant ISPMs. To date, there have been 21 Technical Consultations, whose reports are made available on the IPP.
(Source: Regional Plant Protection Organizations › IPPC Home  Partners).

          The Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

In technical terms, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information with available pest control methods to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This information, in combination with available pest control methods, is used to manage pest damage by the most economical means, and with the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.
IPM extended the concept of integrated control to all classes of pests and was expanded to include tactics other than just chemical and biological controls. Artificial controls such as pesticides were to be applied as in integrated control, but these now had to be compatible with control tactics for all classes of pests. Other tactics, such as host-plant resistance and cultural manipulations, became part of the IPM arsenal. IPM added the multidisciplinary element, involving entomologists, plant pathologists, nematologists, and weed scientists.
IPM is not a single pest control method but, rather, a series of pest management evaluations, decisions and controls. In practicing IPM, growers who are aware of the potential for pest infestation follow a four-tiered approach. The four steps include:
-Set Action Thresholds.
-Monitor and Identify Pests.

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